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اصول و روش تحقیق 1 و 2 دکتر حسین فرهادی Research Methods in Applied Linguistics 1&2 کتاب اصول و روش تحقیق 1 و 2 – دکتر حسین فرهادی

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گارانتی اصالت و سلامت فیزیکی کالا

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نقد و بررسی تخصصی اصول و روش تحقیق 1 و 2 دکتر حسین فرهادی Research Methods in Applied Linguistics 1&2

کتاب اصول و روش تحقیق 1 و 2 – دکتر حسین فرهادی

کتاب Research Methods in Applied Linguistics 1&2
کتاب اصول و روش تحقیق 1 و 2 (Research Methods in Applied Linguistics 1&2) نوشته حسین فرهادی توسط انتشارات  دانشگاه پیام نور به چاپ رسیده است.
موضوع کتاب: مدیریت، روش تحقیق، زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی
این کتاب منبع درسی رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی در دانشگاه پیام نور و سایر دانشگاه ها می باشد
TABLE OF CONTENTS (فهرست مطالب)
Acknowledgements
Preface
Section One: The Concept of Research
Chapter 1. Background
 Objectives of the Chapter

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Sources of obtaining Information

1.2.1 Sensory Experience

1.2.2 Expert Opinion

1.2.3 Logic

1.3 The Scientific Method

Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 2. Principles of Research
Objectives of the Chapter

 2.1 Introduction

2.2 Characteristics of Research

2.2.1 Research Is Systematic

2.2.2 Research Is Logical

2.2.3 Research Is Reductive

2.2.4 Research Is

2.2.5 Research Is Generative

2.3 Goals of Research

2.3.1 Description

 2.3.2 Prediction

2.3.3 Improvement

2.3.4 Explanation

2.4 Kinds and Methods of Research

2.4.1 Exploratory and Confirmatory Research

2.4.2 Pure and Applied Research

 2.5 Steps in Conducting Research

2.5.1 Forming a Research Question

2.5.2 Selecting an Appropriate Research Method

2.5.3. Testing the Research Hypotheses

2.5.4 Preparing the Research Report

Self-Assessment Activities

Section Two: Formulating Research Questions
Chapter 3. Areas of Research in Language Education
Objectives of the Chapter

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Questions in Linguistics

3.3 Questions in Teaching Methodology

3.4 Questions in Factors Influencing TEFL

3.4.1 Cognitive Factors

3.4.2 Affective Factors

3.4.3 Social Factors

3.5 Questions in Language and Literature

3.6 Questions in Language and Technology

3.7 Questions in Language and Politics Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 4. The Research Question
Objectives of the Chapter

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Characteristics of a Good Research Question

4.2.1 Interest

4.2.2 Relevance

4.2.3 Manageability

4.3 Narrowing down the Topic

4.4 Types of Research Questions

4.4.1 Descriptive Questions

4.4.2 Correlational Questions

4.4.3 Cause-Effect Questions

4.5 Forming a Hypothesis Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 5. Review of Literature
Objectives of the Chapter

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Goals of Literature Review

5.3 Finding the Sources of Information

5.4 Reading and Organizing the Materials

5.5 Recording Bibliographical Information

5.6 Taking Notes from the Materials

5.7 Documenting the Sources

Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 6. Characteristics of a Variable
Objectives of the Chapter

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Definition of a Variable

6.3 Measurement Scales of Variables

6.3.1 Nominal Scales

6.3.2 Ordinal Scales

6.3.3 Interval Scales

6.3.4 Ratio Scales

6.4 Convertibility of Measurement Scales

6.5 Functions of Variables Self-Assessment Activities

Section Three: Selecting an Appropriate Research Method
Chapter 7. Historical Method of Research Objectives of the
Chapter 7.1 Introduction

7.2 Formulating a Problem

7.3 Sources of Information

7.3.1 Primary Sources of Information

7.3.2 Secondary Sources of Information

7.4 Criticism of Documents

7.4.1 External Criticism

7.4.2 Internal Criticism

Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 8. Descriptive Method of Research
Objectives of the Chapter

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Survey Methods

8.2.1 School Surveys

8.2.2 Community Surveys

8.2.3 Public Opinion Surveys

8.3 Inter relational Methods

8.3.1 Case Studies

8.3.2 Field Studies

8.3.3 Correlational Studies

8.3.4 Causal-Comparative Methods

8.4 Developmental Methods

Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 9. Experimental Method of Research
Objectives of the Chapter

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Principles of the Experimental Method

9.3 Characteristics of the True Experimental Method

9.3.1 Randomization

9.3.2 Experimental and Control Groups

.3.3 Pretest

9.3.4 Posttest

9.4 Validity of Research

9.4.1 Internal Validity

9.4.1.1 History Effect

9.4.1.2 Maturation Effect

.4.1.3 Testing Effect

.4.1.4 Selection Effect

9.4.1.5 Mortality Effect

9.4.2 External Validity

9.5 Pre-Experimental Methods

9.5.1 One-Shot Case Study

9.5.2 One-Group Pretest Posttest Study

9.5.3 Intact Group Study

9.6 Quasi-Experimental Methods

Self-Assessment Activities

Section Four: Testing The Research Hypotheses
Chapter 10. Techniques of Data Collection
Objectives of the Chapter

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Sample and Population

10.2.1 Random Samples

10.2.2 Non-Random Samples

10.3 Ethics in Research

10.4 Questionnaires

10.4.1 Open-Ended Questionnaires

10.4.2 Closed Questionnaires

10.4.3 Distributing the Questionnaire

10.4.3.1 Direct Method

10.4.3.2 Indirect Method

10.4.4 Guidelines for Constructing a Questionnaire

10.5 Observation

10.5.1 Direct Observation

10.5.2 Indirect Observation

10.6 Interviews

10.6.1 Structured Interview

10.6.2 Unstructured Interview

10.6.3 Conducting an Interview

10.6.3.1 Preparing for the Interview

10.6.3.2 Eliciting Information

10.6.3.3 Recording the Data

10.7 Tests

10.7.1 Validity

10.7.1.1 Content Validity

10.7.1.2 Concurrent Validity

.7.1.3 Predictive Validity

10.7.1.4 Construct Validity

10.7.2 Reliability

10.8 Inventories

10.9 Projective Measures

Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 11. Summarizing the Data
Objectives of the Chapter

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Coding the Data

11.2.1 Nominal Data

11.2.2 Ordinal Data

11.2.3 Interval Data

11.3 Simple Numerical Computations

11.3.1 Simple Frequency

11.3.2 Relative Frequency

11.3.3 Percent

11.3.4 Cumulative Frequency

11.3.5 Relative Cumulative Frequency

11.3.6 Percentile

11.4 Displaying the Data

Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 12. Describing the Data
Objectives of the Chapter

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Measures of Central Tendency

12.2.1 The Mode

12.2.2 The Median

12.2.3 The Mean

12.3 Measures of Variability

12.3.1 The Range

12.3.2 The Standard Deviation

12.3.3 The Variance

Self Assessment Activities

Chapter 13. Standard Scores
Objectives of the Chapter

13.1 Introduction

13.2 The Normal Distribution

13.3 Characteristics of a Normal Curve

13.4 Standard Scores

Self-Assessment Activities

Section five: Inferential Statistics
Chapter 14. Probability and Hypothesis Testing
Objectives of the Chapter

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Probability

14.2.1 The Probability of a Certain Score Belonging to a Certain Distribution

14.2.2 The Probability of a Certain Mean Score Belonging to a Certain

14.3 Hypothesis Testing

14.4 Testing Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis

Self-Assessment Activities

Chapter 15. Comparing The Means (T-Test)
Objectives of the Chapter

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Testing the Differences between the Two Means

15.3 Degrees of Freedom

15.4 Matched T-Test

15.5 Assumptions Underlying T-Test

Self-Assessment Activities

Section Six: Preparing The Research Report
Chapter 16. Writing the Research Paper
Objectives of the Chapter

16.1 Introduction

16.2 The Typical Format of Journal Article

16.3 Preliminaries

16.3.1 The Cover Page

16.3.2 The Table of Contents Page

16.3.3 The Abstract Page

16.4 The Introduction Section

16.4.1 Review of Literature

16.4.2 Statement of Purpose

16.5 The Method Section

16.5.1 Subjects

16.5.2 Design

16.5.3 Materials

16.5.4 Procedure

16.6 The Results Section

16.7 The Discussion Section

16.8 The References Section

Self-Assessment Activities

Appendixes
Appendix 1 The Table of Proportion of Areas Under the Normal Curve

Appendix 2 Table of t Critical Values

Appendix 3 Answer Key

Appendix 4 Glossary of Terms

 









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